Head lice are tiny insects that feed on blood from the human scalp. An infestation of head lice, called pediculosis capitis, most often affects children and usually results from the direct transfer of lice from the hair of one person to the hair of another. A head lice infestation isn’t a sign of poor personal hygiene or an unclean living environment. Head lice don’t carry bacterial or viral infectious diseases. Over-the-counter and prescription medications are available to treat head lice. Following treatment instructions carefully is important for ridding your scalp and hair of lice and their eggs. A number of home or natural remedies are used to treat head lice infestations, but there is little to no clinical evidence of their effectiveness.